Comparing ISO/IEC 42001 and ISO/IEC 27001: Aligning AI and Information Security Standards

10 July 2024

In this article, we delve into the controls outlined in ISO/IEC 42001 and ISO/IEC 27001—standards governing artificial intelligence (AI) and information security, respectively. This comparison, while not exhaustive, highlights their shared principles of governance, risk management, and compliance. The goal is to inspire organizations to enhance their practices and adapt to the evolving technological landscape with the introduction of these standards.

ISO/IEC 27001 Annex A.5 Information Security Policies vs. ISO/IEC 42001 Annex B.2 AI Policy

Both ISO/IEC 27001 Annex A.5 and ISO/IEC 42001 Annex B.2 emphasize the necessity of establishing a robust policy framework within their respective domains. These controls underscore the importance of implementing and maintaining policies to ensure their effectiveness over time, tailored to the specific needs and risk environment of the organization.

However, the subject matter sets them apart. ISO/IEC 27001 Annex A.5 is centered on information security policies, addressing a broad spectrum of information security areas. In contrast, ISO/IEC 42001 Annex B.2 is dedicated to AI-specific policies, focusing on considerations such as fairness, transparency, and ethical use. While both involve policy development, the specific content and criteria differ, with ISO/IEC 27001 covering a wider range of information security aspects, and ISO/IEC 42001 honing in on policies related to AI systems.

Integration Considerations: Organizations should align their information security policies (ISO/IEC 27001 Annex A.5) with AI policies (ISO/IEC 42001 Annex B.2) to ensure a coherent approach to security and ethical considerations. Effective integration requires collaboration between information security teams and AI development teams, with continuous communication and updates to address emerging challenges in both fields.

ISO/IEC 27001 Annex A.6 Organization of Information Security vs. ISO/IEC 42001 Annex B.3 Internal Organization

Both standards highlight the need for a structured organizational framework to manage and implement security measures effectively. Clear roles and responsibilities, along with coordination mechanisms, are essential whether the focus is on information security (ISO/IEC 27001 Annex A.6) or the internal organization of AI processes (ISO/IEC 42001 Annex B.3).

The primary difference lies in their focus. ISO/IEC 27001 Annex A.6 is about information security, while ISO/IEC 42001 Annex B.3 specifically addresses the internal organization of AI systems. The content and requirements differ accordingly, with ISO/IEC 27001 covering a broader range of information security aspects and ISO/IEC 42001 focusing on AI-specific organizational needs.

Integration Considerations: Organizations should align the organizational structures and roles defined in information security policies with those outlined in AI policies to ensure consistency and collaboration. Managing both traditional information security concerns and the unique challenges posed by AI systems requires a holistic approach, with close cooperation between information security and AI development teams.

ISO/IEC 27001 Annex A.7 Human Resource Security vs. ISO/IEC 42001 Annex B.4 Resources for AI System

Both controls emphasize the importance of considering personnel aspects within the organization. Defining and communicating clear roles and responsibilities, along with providing training and awareness programs, are critical in both domains.

However, ISO/IEC 27001 Annex A.7 focuses on human resource security in the context of information security, addressing aspects like background checks and disciplinary actions. ISO/IEC 42001 Annex B.4, on the other hand, deals with resources specific to AI systems, considering the skills and expertise needed for AI development.

Integration Considerations: Aligning human resource security policies with the personnel requirements for AI system development is crucial. Collaboration between HR departments, information security teams, and AI development teams ensures that personnel involved in AI projects are well-qualified, trained, and compliant with security policies.

ISO/IEC 27001 Annex A.8 Asset Management vs. ISO/IEC 42001 Annex B.5 Assessing Impacts of AI Systems

Risk assessments are a common thread in both ISO/IEC 27001 Annex A.8 and ISO/IEC 42001 Annex B.5. While ISO/IEC 27001 focuses on assessing risks related to information assets, ISO/IEC 42001 concentrates on risks associated with AI systems, promoting a systematic approach to managing assets and assessing impacts.

The primary difference is in their focus: ISO/IEC 27001 Annex A.8 deals with asset management in the context of information security, whereas ISO/IEC 42001 Annex B.5 addresses the impacts related to AI systems, including safety, security, and ethical considerations.

Integration Considerations: Organizations should integrate asset management practices with the assessment of impacts related to AI systems. Collaborative efforts between information security teams and AI development teams are necessary to protect both information assets and AI systems adequately. Risk assessment processes should align, considering the unique aspects of information assets and AI systems.

ISO/IEC 27001 Annex A.15 Supplier Relationships vs. ISO/IEC 42001 Annex B.10 Third Party and Customer Relationships

Both controls involve assessing and managing risks associated with external relationships. ISO/IEC 27001 Annex A.15 focuses on information security risks with suppliers, while ISO/IEC 42001 Annex B.10 addresses risks related to AI systems and third parties. Documented agreements and ongoing monitoring are critical to ensuring compliance with security or AI requirements.

The key difference lies in their focus: ISO/IEC 27001 Annex A.15 is about information security in supplier relationships, while ISO/IEC 42001 Annex B.10 pertains to AI systems' interactions with third parties and customers, emphasizing ethical considerations.

Integration Considerations: Organizations should integrate controls for supplier relationships with considerations for third-party and customer relationships. Collaboration between information security teams and AI development teams is essential to address both information security and ethical considerations effectively. Aligning risk management processes ensures a comprehensive approach to managing external relationships.


Comparing ISO/IEC 42001 and ISO/IEC 27001 reveals both commonalities and distinctions, reflecting their respective focuses on AI and information security. By aligning and integrating the controls from these standards, organizations can achieve a cohesive, well-rounded approach to governance, risk management, and compliance, enhancing their capabilities to navigate the evolving technological landscape.

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